||In this study, the performance of a small-capacity directly cooled refrigerator was evaluated by using the mixture of R290 and R600a with mass fraction of 55:45 as an alternative to R134a. The compressor displacement volume of the alternative system with R290/R600a 55/45) was modified from that of the original system with R134a to match the refrigeration capacity. Both systems with R290/R600a (55/45) and R134a were tested, and then optimized by varying the refrigerant charge and capillary tube length under experimental conditions for both the pull-down test and the power consumption test. The refrigerant charge of the optimized R290/R600a system was approximately 50% of that of the optimized R134a system. The capillary tube lengths for each evaporator in the optimized R290/R600a system were 500mm longer than those in the optimized R134a system. The power consumption of the optimized R134a system was 12.3% higher than that of the optimized R290/R600a system. The cooling speed of the optimized R290/R600a (55/45) system at the in-case setting temperature of -15 ˚C was improved by 28.8% over that of the optimized R134a system.